General & Use:
Bromine occurs in nature as bromide salts.The very few parts per million (ppm)of bromides in crustal parent rock,leached by rainfall through time,have accumulated in seawater and lakes. Bromine is obtained from seawater,natural brines,or as the by -product brines of potash recovery. The average bromine concentration in seawater is about 70 ppm;in brine wells it may range from 2500 to 4000 ppm,while in the surface layers of the Dead Sea,the richest source on earth,it reaches 4500-5000 ppm.The estimated reserves of Bromine in the Dead Sea, expressed in terms of Magnesium Bromide,are one thousand million tons.At Sdom,the Dead Sea brines undergo solar evaporation.The end-brines remaining after precipitation of Sodium Chloride,Carnalite,Magnesium Chloride and Calcium Chloride,are Bromine-enriched to as much as 13,000 ppm.It is from these end-brines that elemental Bromine is extracted. Elemental Bromine is the starting point for manufacturing a wide range of Bromine compounds, important in industry and agriculture.There are also a number of industrial processes dependent on the catalytic or oxidative nature of the bromine molecule. Bromine is highly reactive and is a powerful oxidizing agent in the presence of water.It reacts vigorously with Amines,Olefins and Phenols as well as Aliphatic and Aromatic Hydrocarbons, Ketones and Acids,Brominating them either by addition or substitution.With many of the metals and elements,anhydrous Bromine is less reactive than wet Bromine;however,dry Bromine reacts vigorously with Aluminum,Titanium,Mercuryas as well as Alkaline earth and Alkaline Metals.